Wednesday | 24 April 2024 | 15 Shawaal 1445

Fatwa Answer

Question ID: 1185 Category: Dealings and Transactions
Nikah Without the Permission of the Girl’s Wali

Assalaamu alaikum wa Rahmatullah Mufti Saab,

The question is regarding the validity of marriage.

Five year ago, I liked the girl and she also liked me. I sent the proposal for marriage through parents. Initially, her parent's resisted and somehow, they agreed for marriage after the girl talked with the parents. Within a couple of months, we got engaged.
Due to financial conditions, our parents decided to postpone the marriage for a couple of years. In these years, we used to meet a lot and somehow, we got to know that it is not legal to meet even after engagement.
I got to know from the Imam of a nearby masjid that, girl can marry a boy in the absence of her father/brother if they are adults.
We chose her step-cousin as her vali and one of our friends became qazi for marriage. Mehr amount got decided between us. So, basically we got into nikah without any paperwork and our parents weren't aware of this nikah. (Just to be clear, our parents agreed for our marriage at that time).
Now in the present scenario, the girl's parents want to cancel this marriage. Girl tried to convince her parents and even my family and I tried to convince them. They are not agreeing for the marriage. Now, the girl wants to proceed with her parent's decision and now she believes that our marriage is null and void as she watches some sheik's videos online. I didn't get any scenario for the continuation of this relationship.
Now, I'm confused. Is this marriage valid and Do I need to give divorce to her for this marriage?
Kindly provide me fatwa in this regard.

Jazaak Allahu Khairan Kaseera!
May Allah bless you for your service for the ummah. Ameen! 

الجواب وبالله التوفيق

When a sane, adult Muslim girl performs Nikah with a Muslim man, in the presence of two witnesses, and the shar‘ai requirements have been fulfilled, it will be considered valid. Therefore, the Nikah performed by the girl as described in the question is considered valid. However, the person who was chosen as wali will not be considered correct as the wali-aqrab was also available. Therefore, the girl’s parents can bring a claim against the Nikah (in an Islamic court) if the man and woman’s kufw (status quo) was significantly different. Additionally, when the parents were in agreement and willing on both sides, then what was the reason for performing the Nikah without their knowledge?

قال الحصکفي: فنفذ نکاح حرة مکلفة بلا رضا ولي، والأصلُ أن کل من تصرف في مالہ، تصرف في نفسہ، ومالا فلا۔ قال ابن عابدین: واحترز بالمکلفة عن الصغیرة والمجنونة، فلا یصح الا بولي۔۔۔۔ وأما حدیث ”أیما امرأة نکحت نفسہا بغیر اذن ولیہا، فنکاحہا باطل، فنکاحہا باطل، فنکاحہا باطل، وحسنہ الترمذي، و حدیث ”لا نکاح الا بولي“ رواہ أبو داوٴد و غیرہ فمعارض بقولہ صلی اللّٰہ علیہ وسلم: الأیم أحق بنفسہا من ولیہا، رواہ مسلم و أبوداوٴد والترمذي، والنسائي و مالک في المو طأ، والأیمُ ما لا زوج لا بکراً أو لا، فانہ لیس للولي الا مباشرة العقد اذا رضیت، وقد جعلہا أحق منہ بہ، و یترجح ہذا بقوة السند والاتفاق علی صحتہ بخلاف الحدیثین الأولیین، فانہ ضعیفان أو حسنان أو یجمع بالتخصیص أو بأن النفي للکمال الخ۔۔۔ (الدر المختار مع رد المحتار: ۳/ ۵۵، کتاب النکاح، باب الولي، ط: دار الفکر، بیروت)

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