Monday | 04 March 2024 | 23 Shabaan 1445

Fatwa Answer

Question ID: 1196 Category: Dealings and Transactions
Dakar deduction for a specific kind of business

Aslamo Alikum!

Me & my partner want to establish a construction business with below terms & condition.

1)- I will provide 70% amount to start business.

2)- My partner will provide rest of 30% amount after 3 years to strengthen the business further.

3)- To purchase land, construct house & then selling it all responsibility would be on my partner shoulder.

4)- No party can take out the original investment or profit for 8 years in order to make sure to invest this amount again & again same way to give the shape of business as a company.

5)- Both partner would own company 50% each in case of any dispute.

Now my question is what would be zakat procedure either we have to pay every year on 2.5 % of profit that we earned each year or ?

Waiting for your guidance.



الجواب وباللہ التوفیق

The following are just a few of the many other conditions that must be met in order for the partnership contract to be valid. Since those conditions seem to be lacking within your question, they are being stated below:

  1. For a partnership to be valid, capital must be cash, not loan. Since in this case the capital of a participant is three years later, such participation is not valid. If the other participant invests after three years, the partnership will be valid from that time onwards, not earlier.
  1. It is also important to determine the percentage of profit involved in the partnership transactions. Dealings without setting a profit or determining profit without regard to the percentage of profit, but rather in terms of capital or in the form of a fixed amount, is not correct.
  2. In case of dispute, it is not lawful for each party to own 50%, but each party will own as much as its share in the business.
  3. For the partner who does not work (a sleeping partner), it is not correct to assign to that partner a profit more than his proportion into the capital.
  4. In the event of a loss, each party must also share the loss in proportion to its share. 

Zakat will be obligatory each year on the total capital invested and the profit earned, if it is accumulated, at the rate of 2.5%. 

Partnership in compliance with above conditions will be valid, otherwise it is not

6. The ruling with the payment of Zakat is that each participant, if his original capital and profit has been accumulated, should pay Zakat at the rate of two and a half percent at the end of the year.

(وَمِنْهَا) : أَنْ يَكُونَ رَأْسُ مَالِ الشَّرِكَةِ عَيْنًا حَاضِرًا لَا دَيْنًا، وَلَا مَالًا غَائِبًا، فَإِنْ كَانَ لَا تَجُوزُ عِنَانًا، كَانَتْ أَوْ مُفَاوَضَةً؛ لِأَنَّ الْمَقْصُودَ مِنْ الشَّرِكَةِ الرِّبْحُ وَذَلِكَ بِوَاسِطَةِ التَّصَرُّفِ، وَلَا يُمْكِنُ فِي الدَّيْنِ وَلَا الْمَالِ الْغَائِبِ، فَلَا يَحْصُلُ الْمَقْصُودُ وَإِنَّمَا يُشْتَرَطُ الْحُضُورُ عِنْدَ الشِّرَاءِ لَا عِنْدَ الْعَقْدِ؛ لِأَنَّ عَقْدَ الشَّرِكَةِ يَتِمُّ بِالشِّرَاءِ، فَيُعْتَبَرُ الْحُضُورُ عِنْدَهُ(بدائع الصںائع : ۶/۶۰)

اشترکا فجاء أحدہما بألف والآخر بألفین علی أن الربح والوضیعۃ نصفان فالعقد جائز، والشرط في حق الوضیعۃ باطل، فإن عملا وربحا، فالربح علی ما شرطا، وإن خسرا فالخسران علی قدر رأس في مالہما۔ (عالمگیري، کتاب الشرکۃ، الباب الثالث في شرکۃ العنان، الفصل الثاني، ۲/۳۲۰)

 منہا (شرائط جواز الشرکة) أن یکون الربح معلوم القدر․․․ وأن یکون جزء ًا شائعًا في الجملة لا معینا․․․ أما الشرکة بالأموال فلہا شروط، منہا أن یکون رأس المال من الأثمان المطلقة․․․ وہي الدراہم والدنانیر عنانًا کانت الشرکة أو مفاوضة․․․ولو کان من أحدہما دراہم ومن الآخر عروض فالحیلة فی جوازہ أن یبیع کل واحد منہما نصف مالہ بنصف دراہم صاحبہ ویتقابضاویخلطا جمیعًا حتی تصیر الدراہم بینہما والعروض بینہما ثم یعقدان علیہما عقد الشرکة فیجوز (بدائع الصنائع: ۵/۷۷، ط: زکریا دیوبند)
"وإن شرطا الربح للعامل أكثر من رأس ماله جاز أيضاً على الشرط، ويكون مال الدافع عند العامل مضاربةً، ولو شرطا الربح للدافع أكثر من رأس ماله لايصح الشرط ويكون مال الدافع عند العامل بضاعةً لكل واحد منهما ربح ماله".  (کتاب الشرکۃ، مطلب فی شرکۃ العنان، ج:۴ ؍۳۱۲)

  فقط واللہ اعلم بالصواب