My husband and I had made a manat to donate some amount of money for a purpose. When that purpose was fulfilled due to the Mercy of Allah we started to donate that amount. Mostly we went to websites of Masjids and selected Sadaqah donation from their menu and donated that way. To one masjid my husband told me that he donated some amount in the form of Zakat. We also gave some to a family who needed money for 2 of their daughters weddings and people around us told us that they are eligible for sadaqah, though they have a house, own a tv and possibly some gold, but are financially weak.
The issue is that I just read somewhere that sadaqah nazar can only be given to the same categories of people that are eligible for zakat. I wanted to know if our sadaqah that we have given so far mentioned above is valid or not?
If not do we have to repay it or pay kaffarah or do both?
بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم
الجواب وباللہ التوفیق
1. The expenditure of Zakat, “Mannat” and obligatory Sadaqa is the same. Therefore, just as Zakat is mandatory to pay to the poor and deserving, it is also compulsory to distribute obligatory Sadaqa and “Mannat” to poor and Zakat eligible individuals.
2. It is not permissible to pay Zakat and “Mannat” for and on the Masjid. It will not absolve the giver from his/her obligation to discharge Zakat or “Mannat". It will be necessary to pay Zakat again to the rightful deserving individuals.
If the Masjid management distributes it among the poor and makes them owners of Zakat money, then Zakat and “Mannat” will be considered paid and discharged as well.
3. If an institution distributes Zakat and “Mannat” to deserving recipients by making them its owner, according to Shari’ah rules, then Zakat or “Mannat” will be considered paid.
But instead, if money is used on welfare services, then Zakat and “Mannat” etc. will remain unpaid by the giver and will need to be paid again according to Shari’ah guidelines.
If the family to whom you have paid Zakat:
a. has less than the amount of gold nisab.
b. you considered Zakat recipients deserving.
c. community also believes them deserving.
Only then, your Zakat and “Mannat” obligation will be considered discharged with no need to repay.
Note, in case Zakat or “Mannat” is not paid, it is necessary to pay it again. There is no expiation for this.
مصرف الزکاۃ والعشر ہو فقیر (وہو من لہ أدنی شيء) أي دون نصاب۔ کذا في الشامي تحت باب المصرف وہو مصرف أیضاً لصدقۃ الفطر والکفارۃ والنذر وغیر ذٰلک من الصدقات الواجبۃ۔ (شامي، کتاب الزکاۃ / باب المصرف ۲؍۳۳۹)
’’ ولایجوز ان یبنی بالزکاۃ المسجد وکذاالقناطر والسقایات واصلاح الطرقات وکری الانہار ‘‘ … ( الھندیۃ : ۱ / ۱۸۸’’
یشترط ان یکون الصرف تملیکا لااباحۃ کمامر لایصرف الی بناء نحومسجد ‘‘ … ( الدرالمختار : ۱ / ۱۴۰
فقط واللہ اعلم بالصواب