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Fatwa Answer

Question ID: 1050 Category: Dealings
Divorce issues

 

Salam Alikum WRB,

I'm writing this email to seek guidance from Sharia about a divorce issue.

We have one new Muslim girl here in Canada who got married to a Muslim man.She got pregnant but her husband refused to support her physically and economically and she terminated the pregnancy. Due to this and other reasons, she denounced her Islam and asked for divorce from her husband. Husband did give her divorce in writing but later claimed that he did Rujuh but girl denied it. Please answer the following questions to clarify the situation for everyone.

1.Is it true that her Nikah became invalid the moment she denounced Islam?

2.If she recite Shahada again , does she need to have new Nikah ?

3.If she refuse to have new Nikah, will she be considered divorced ?

4.She has counted her Iddat from the date of her abortion, will that counting be valid for new marriage?

5.if her Nikah became invalid ( because of her denouncing of Islam ) does she still need divorce from her Husband ?

Jazakumullal-ALLAH.

الجواب وباللہ التوفیق

  1. As soon as the wife disowns Islam, the “nikah” between the husband and wife breaks up.
  1. After becoming an apostate, the number of divorces the husband gives during wife’s “Iddat” (waiting period), same number of divorces applies on the wife. But the revocation by the husband under those circumstances is not valid.
  1. If the wife wishes to reunite with her husband in “nikah”, or desires to marry another person, she must first of all become a Muslim, before proceding towards new “nikah”.

If she desires to marry her previous husband, she does not need to complete her “Iddat”; it is allowable for her to have new “nikah” within that waiting period, provided that her husband had given her fewer than three divorces.

But if he had given her all three divorces, she cannot marry her first husband without going through the process of “halalah”. 

If that woman wishes to marry someone other than her previous husband, she must complete her “Iddat” before the new “nikah”.

“Iddat” for a pregnant woman is up to delivery of the child.

If the woman had undergone abortion while in the state of an apostate, her waiting period “Iddat” will end if at the time of abortion, her pregnancy was four or more than four months old.

But if the pregnancy at the time of abortion was fewer than four months, her “Iddat” will be counted as; three menstrual periods after the abortion.

Since the husband has divorced her, she will be called a divorcee.

Note: It should be understood that a woman would sometimes become an apostate as a way to end the marriage. In that specific situation, the religious jurists mention that if the husband now demands to reunite in marriage with his divorced wife, she will be persuaded or coerced into accepting Islam and agreeing to marry her previous husband; otherwise not.

عن الحسن قال: إذا ارتد المرتد عن الإسلام انقطع ما بینہ وبین امرأتہ، فقال الثوريؒ: والرجل والمرأۃ سواء۔ (المصنف لعبد الرزاق: رقم: ۱۲۶۱۷)

إذا ارتد أحد الزوجین وقعت الفرقۃ بینہما في الحال۔ (الفتاویٰ التاتارخانیۃ ۴؍۲۶۸ رقم: ۶۱۵۰ زکریا)

ویقع طلاق زوج المرتدۃ علیھا مادامت في العدۃ۔(رد المحتار : ۲/۶۴۳)

إذا ارتد أحد الزوجین المسلمین بانت منہ امرأتہ مسلمۃ؛ لأن الردۃ تنافی النکاح، ویکون ذٰلک فسخا عاجلا۔ (الموسوعۃ الفقہیۃ ۲۲؍۱۹۸بیروت)وارتداد أحدہما أي الزوجین فسخ، وتحتہ في الشامیۃ: فلو ارتد مرارًا وجدد الإسلام في کل مرۃ وجدد النکاح علی قول أبي حنیفۃؒ  تحل امرأتہ من غیر إصابۃ زوج ثان۔ (الدر المختار مع الشامي / باب نکاح الکافر ۴؍۳۶۶ زکریا)

ولو اجرت کلمۃ الکفر علی لسانھا مغایظۃ لزوجھا او اخراجاً لنفسہا عن حبا لتہ  او لا ستیجاب المھر علیہ بنکاح مستانف تحرم علی زوجھا فتجبر علی الا سلام ، ولکل قاضی ان یجدد النکاح بادنی شیء ولو بدینار سخطت او رضیت ولیس لھا ان تتزوج الا بزوجھا ، قال الھدوانی آخذ بھذا قال ابو اللیث وبہ ناخذ ۔ (الھندیۃ ، کتاب النکاح ، الباب العاشر فی نکاح الکفار ، ۱/۳۳۹، ماجدیۃ )

  وارتداد احدہما  فسخ عاجل الی ان قال و تجبر علی الاسلام و علی تجدید النکاح زجراً لہا بمہر یسیر کدینار و علیہ الفتویٰ ولو الجیتہ وافتی مشائخ بلخ بعد مالفرقتہ بردتہا زجراً و تیسیراً (الدرالمختار علی ہامش رد المحتار باب نکاح الکافر ج ۲ ص)

(وَ) انْقِضَاءُ (الْعِدَّةِ مِنْ الْأَخِيرِ وِفَاقًا) لِتَعَلُّقِهِ بِالْفَرَاغِ (وَسِقْطٌ) مُثَلَّثُ السِّينِ: أَيْ مَسْقُوطٌ (ظَهَرَ بَعْضُ خَلْقِهِ كَيَدٍ أَوْ رِجْلٍ) أَوْ أُصْبُعٍ أَوْ ظُفُرٍ أَوْ شَعْرٍ، وَلَا يَسْتَبِينُ خَلْقُهُ إلَّا بَعْدَ مِائَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ يَوْمًا ۔۔۔مطْلَبٌ فِي أَحْوَالِ السِّقْطِ وَأَحْكَامِهِ (قَوْلُهُ أَيْ مَسْقُوطٌ) الَّذِي فِي الْبَحْرِ التَّعْبِيرُ بِالسَّاقِطِ وَهُوَ الْحَقُّ لَفْظًا وَمَعْنًى؛ أَمَّا لَفْظًا فَلِأَنَّ سَقَطَ لَازِمٌ لَا يُبْنَى مِنْهُ اسْمُ الْمَفْعُولِ، وَأَمَّا مَعْنًى فَلِأَنَّ الْمَقْصُودَ سُقُوطُ الْوَلَدِ سَوَاءٌ سَقَطَ بِنَفْسِهِ أَوْ أَسْقَطَهُ غَيْرُهُ ح (قَوْلُهُ وَلَا يَسْتَبِينُ خَلْقُهُ إلَخْ) قَالَ فِي الْبَحْرِ: الْمُرَادُ نَفْخُ الرُّوحِ وَإِلَّا فَالْمُشَاهَدُ ظُهُورُ خَلْقِهِ قَبْلَهَا وَقَدْ وَجَّهَهُ فِي الْبَدَائِعِ وَغَيْرِهَا بِأَنَّهُ يَكُونُ أَرْبَعِينَ يَوْمًا نُطْفَةً وَأَرْبَعِينَ عَلَقَةً وَأَرْبَعِينَ مُضْغَةً. وَعِبَارَتُهُ فِي عِقْدِ الْفَرَائِدِ قَالُوا: يُبَاحُ لَهَا أَنْ تُعَالِجَ فِي اسْتِنْزَالِ الدَّمِ مَا دَامَ الْحَمْلُ مُضْغَةً أَوْ عَلَقَةً وَلَمْ يُخْلَقْ لَهُ عُضْوٌ، وَقَدَّرُوا تِلْكَ الْمُدَّةَ بِمِائَةٍ وَعِشْرِينَ يَوْمًا، وَإِنَّمَا أَبَاحُوا ذَلِكَ؛ لِأَنَّهُ لَيْسَ بِآدَمِيٍّ. اهـ كَذَا فِي النَّهْرِ. (الدر

علی الرد : ۱/۳۰۲) 

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