Thursday | 18 April 2024 | 9 Shawaal 1445

Fatwa Answer

Question ID: 1636 Category: Marriage and Divorce
2nd marriage

Asking for a friend. A friend married a man who is already married. His wife didn't know. They are Muslim. The 2nd wife recently became a Muslim. His first wife recently found out and is asking for a divorce. She says the 2nd marriage is invalid because they don't have paperwork. The 2nd marriage doesn't have paperwork because they are in the USA and fear legal problems. They did have 2 witnesses and made appropriate Islamic marriage vows. In Islamic law is this marriage valid or acceptable? The wife believes it isn't. The husband believes it is. I don't care about the USA legal law, I am asking about Islamic law. Thank you for your scholarly input. 

بسم اللہ الرحمن الرحیم

:الجواب و باللہ التوفیق

A marriage can take place even without paperwork, provided that the conditions for conducting marriage are complied with. 

Referring to your enquiry, if both parties in the marital contract are Muslims and "ایجاب وقبول" the proposal and acceptance took place in the same assembly in presence of two sane, adult, Muslim witnesses, then this marriage will be valid. 

قال ابن عابدین: (وَيَنْعَقِدُ) مُتَلَبِّسًا (بِإِيجَابٍ) مِنْ أَحَدِهِمَا (وَقَبُولٍ) مِنْ الْآخِرِ: قولہ و ینعقد: ۔۔۔وَالْحَاصِلُ أَنَّ النِّكَاحَ وَالْبَيْعَ وَنَحْوَهُمَا، وَإِنْ كَانَتْ تُوجَدُ حِسًّا بِالْإِيجَابِ وَالْقَبُولِ، لَكِنْ وَصْفُهَا بِكَوْنِهَا عُقُودًا مَخْصُوصَةً بِأَرْكَانٍ وَشَرَائِطَ يَتَرَتَّبُ عَلَيْهَا أَحْكَامٌ، تَنْتَفِي تِلْكَ الْعُقُودُ بِانْتِفَائِهَا وُجُودٌ شَرْعِيٌّ زَائِدٌ عَلَى الْحِسِّيِّ، فَلَيْسَ الْعَقْدُ الشَّرْعِيُّ مُجَرَّدَ الْإِيجَابِ وَالْقَبُولِ وَلَا الِارْتِبَاطَ وَحْدَهُ بَلْ هُوَ مَجْمُوعُ الثَّلَاثَةِ وَعَلَيْهِ فَقَوْلُهُ: وَيَنْعَقِدُ أَيْ النِّكَاحُ أَيْ يَثْبُتُ وَيَحْصُلُ انْعِقَادُهُ بِالْإِيجَابِ وَالْقَبُولِ۔رد المحتار اوائل  کتاب النکاح ۳/۹ شاملہ دار الفکر بیروت۔

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